Home

Vajiram blue Book PDF

Vajiram and Ravi Quick Revision Current Affairs 2021 Part 1 PDF. February 9, 2021 By Swamy Vivekananda. Vajiram and Ravi Quick Revision Current Affairs 2021 Part 1 PDF All PDF which are provided here are for Education purposes only. Please utilize them for building your knowledge and don't make them Commercial Vajiram & Ravi Yellow Books 2019 PDF. 1 SECURITY ISSUES 2019-20 - Download. 2 MODERN HISTORY INDIA - Download. 3 ENVIRONMENT AND ECOLOGY - Download. 4 INTERNAL SECURITY - Download. 5 GOVERNANCE ISSUES 2019 - Download. 6 SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY BASICS - Download. 7 INDIAN ECONOMY PART 1 - Download. 8 INDIAN ECONOMY PART 2 - Download VAJIRAM AND RAVI India Year Book 2020 Page 6 2. NATIONAL SYMBOLS NATIONAL FLAG • The National Flag shall be a tricolour panel made up of three rectangular panels or sub-panels of equal width. The middle panel shall be white, bearing at its centre the design of Ashoka Chakra in navy blue colour with 24 equally spaced spokes Download, Free Study Materials, UPSC, UPSC Economy, Vajiram & Ravi Material / May 14, 2020. June 23, 2020. Vajiram & Ravi Indian Economy Yellow Book Pdf UPSC - Here We are Providing You Indian Indian Economy Book From Vajiram And Ravi IAS Coaching academy For UPSC 2020 Exam . Each year about 10000 students enroll in this coaching and got.

Vajiram Archives - Free Upsc Material

The Foundation and the First Line of reading while preparing for the Preliminary Test and Main Examination is the 18 Volumes of 'Yellow Books' on General Studies and the Monthly Current Affairs Digest published by Vajiram & Ravi Vajiram & Ravi: The Recitals Feb 2020 PDF Download. Hey guys, we hope your preparation is going quite well for the upcoming UPSC Prelim 2020. As you know we are making our best efforts to make sure that education becomes accessible, affordable for everyone

Free Download Vajiram & Ravi Yellow Books 2019 PD

  1. The UPSC CSAT notes pdf provided by Vajiram and Ravi is a must for aspirants to qualify CSAT. Because it is mandatory to qualify CSAT without which aspirants' general studies papers will not be evaluated. The students from non-engineering and non mathematics background generally fear from CSAT. These notes will help you a lot to qualify UPSC.
  2. Vajiram and Ravi Indian Polity Yellow Book Part 2 Pdf
  3. Haralambos & Holborn Sociology PDF Here Each and Every PDF is provided for Free and should be used for Education purposes only. Please utilize them wisely and don't make them Commercial. We request you to respect our Hard Work. Join Our Telegram Channel We gather all these tests and Materials with intense struggle, so if [

by Vajiram & Ravi . Economic Survey 2020-21 - For UPSC CSE Buy Now . Indian Art & Culture (UPSC Prelim & Main) - For UPSC 2022 Buy Now . GS - Indian Geography (UPSC Prelim & Main) - For UPSC 2022 Buy Now . GS - World History (UPSC Mains) - For UPSC 2022 Buy Now . GS - Modern. India Economy Notes for UPSC : Dear Examtrix.com (Exam Tricks) followers, That is to say, this important PDF Book is about Latest Indian Economics Handwritten Class 11,12 Notes PDF Free Download. Similarly, at this platform we share Economics- Core & Current Affairs Handwritten notes pdf in Hindi-English and Indian Economy GS Notes + Related.

Academia.edu is a platform for academics to share research papers Medieval Indian History book for UPSC Prelims & Mains Exam. by Vajiram & Ravi | 1 January 2020. 4.4 out of 5 stars. 4. Paperback Vision IAS PT 365 Updated Classroom Materials PDF Free Download Vision IAS PT 365 Updated Classroom Materials. Read More . By Admin at July 07, 2021 No comments: Related Posts. [Updated 2021]Tamilnadu History Book For UPSC IAS PCS Class-12-Tamil-nadu-Board . Spectrum Modern India Pdf Short Notes. Home → Coaching → Download → History → optional → Rau's IAS History Optional Blue Book PDF Download. Rau's IAS History Optional Blue Book PDF Download. Coaching, Download, History, optional. 21 November 2019 Click here. Print PDF. Newer Post. Vajiram and Ravi Ancient India Printed Notes Download; Vision IAS Mains Notes for.

Vajiram & Ravi Indian Economy Yellow Book Pdf UPS

  1. May 23, 2021 by Akira Arata. Hello folks, we are back again with more UPSC-related study material. Today we are sharing UPSC Mains Geography Previous Year Questions Pdf Download 2021. The previous year's question paper lays the foundation for strengthening further preparation. We have tried arranging the paper topic wise eg
  2. Vajiram and Ravi Medieval India Printed Notes. Ancient History Hand Written Notes 78 Pages PDF. Medieval History Hand Written Notes (90 Pages) PDF. Tamilnadu Class 12th History Book New PDF. Tamilnadu Class 11th History Book New PDF. GS SCORE History Optional 2020 Test 2 with Solution PDF. GS SCORE Mains 2019 History Optional Test 1 - 8 With.
  3. Books on Indian dance, painting, temples etc of Publications Divisions and National Book Trust (NBT) Modern Indian History & Post Independent India. NCERT: Modern India; Tarachand - History of Freedom Movement in India, Vol- I to IV, (Publications Division). Surendernath Sen: 1857 (Publications Division
  4. Geography: Class 11 and 12 NCERTs, Vajiram and Ravi class notes, online reading from PMFIAS. (Vajiram's yellow book of Indian Geography is a good book and covers economic geography in more depth than any other book. I read some portions of it.) GS Paper 2. Indian Polity: Laxmikant, and Vajiram and Ravi's class notes
  5. ation year, especially 6 months prior to it. Even most recent editorial can feature in as question. Governance - Questions require a bit of holistic knowledge of nuances of Governance. I covered it through Vajiram Class Notes (Atish Mathur Sir). There is a book by Laxmikanth as well

Best General Studies Booklist for UPSC IAS - Vajiram & Rav

  1. View Assingment of the question Khaled Mohamed Osman.pdf from SOCIAL WOR PPM16 at University of Hargeisa. Khaled Mohamed Osman Reg no: 21781 MPhil PP Q.: What is your opinion for the impact of ne
  2. Vajiram and Ravi World History Yellow Book PDF ; Vajiram and Ravi Indian Geography Yellow Book PDF ; Categories Coaching Institute Materials Post navigation. Anudeep Durishetty IAS Complete Hand Written Notes PDF [AIR 1] Unacademy Mrunal Economy CSP20 [New Batch] Handouts Part 11 PDF
  3. VAJIRAM AND RAVI PRELIMS 2020 TEST; NEXT IAS PRELIMS 2020; in Rau's IAS Focus. Rau's IAS History Optional Blue Book PDF Download here . Rau's IAS History Optional Blue Book PDF Download here. Share This: Facebook Twitter Ravi Agrahari Sir. Hi My Dear Visitor Now I have shared All of with you Science And Technology Pdf Book . This.
  4. LECTURE NOTES For Health Science Students General Psychology Girma Lemma Defense University College In collaboration with the Ethiopia Public Health Training Initiative, The Carter Center

Vajiram & Ravi: The Recitals Feb 2020 PDF Downloa

How to get Vajiram & Ravi materials/notes for free - Quor

  1. Harlambos Blue book (the big one, not the small orange one)- Covered few topics from this which are- INTRODUCTION (Chapter 0), Chapter 1- till Page 26 ie from Introduction to A critique of the neoliberal perspective, then page 30-34 ie from Social stratification- a marxist Perspective and Social stratification- a Weberian.
  2. ations from high school. So all of you must download this book so that you can prepare your competitive exams more thoroughly. This book is very popular among students [
  3. Free IAS Study Material for UPSC Exam. We provide upsc notes in pdf for ease of study. The UPSC study Material for IAS Preparation is meant to help you prepare better without coaching center. Our UPSC Study Material is complimeted by general studies notes and online tests along with recommended books. Use these Study Material for IAS, Free UPSC Study Material wisely

Download Raus IAS History Optional Blue books pd

In this section of Geography Optional, You have to do integrated study of Paper 1 (Part B) and Paper 2 i.e. Population and Settlement Geography of Human Geography { Paper 1 (Part B)} with Cultural Setting (Chapter 6) & Settlements (Chapter 7) of Geography of India. L-1 : Growth & Distribution of World Population Atul Vats has secured Rank 60 in Civil Services Examination,2015. This was his first attempt at the coveted exam. He has been associated with forumias.com since the last one year and has been an active member throughout. He has inspired many with his timely advices, comments and now, with his success. ForumIAS would like to congratulate him for his spectacular success and wish him all the best. Conclusion: India's maritime security challenges and opportunities are both complex and varied. Despite being smallest of the three armed forces, the Indian Navy ably complemented by the Indian Coastguard has acquired a creditable profile in the extended Indian Ocean region. Whether it is Tsunami 2004 or humanitarian efforts, the Indian Navy.

• 'Blue Flag' Certification • Tiger Deaths • Craspedotropis Gretathunbergae • Chinese Paddlefish • Human-Elephant Conflict • Senna Spectabilis • Swamp Wallaby Coastal Regulation Zone (CRZ) Rules Plastic Packaging Pollution Statement On Climate Of India During 2019 • R.K. Pachauri Cauvery Delta Region • Wollemi Pin 2> Vajiram - Attended mock sessions. 1-2-1 seating with Ravindran sir gives you quite an accurate idea about tentative marks in interview. 3> Sriram - Sriram sir is a legend. Attended a mock and a class with him. He told me that I was taking 1 step forward and 2 step back in interview. He was right . 4> Chanakya - For mock interview. Read More. MYUPSC.COM is dedicated to preparation of UPSC Civil Services and State PSC Prelims and Mains Examination 2020. we are providing here the best quality study material and Test Series for UPSC IAS Prelims and Mains Exam 2020. you can get India yearbook 2020 and State wise Current Affairs and General Knowledge Yearbook 2020

Haralambos and Holborn Sociology book PDF Examtrix

  1. Gershwin_rhapsody_in_blue_free_mp3_ ##HOT## (Hindi)Free pdf Download- By Savindra Singh, Savindra singh Geography optional printed notes shabbir sir vajiram and ravi providing their best Main Physical Features of India: The Himalayas, Indian Desert, Examples.. 1-16 of 25 results · Climatology by Savindra Singh (English Medium.
  2. d an absolute Read More
  3. Apr 19, 2021 - 1st Edition, by K Annamalai, PRINT ISBN: 9789389449877 E-TEXT ISBN: 978938944987
  4. View OM 1.docx from MBA FINANCE at IIM Bangalore. OM Goods : Physical items produced by business orgonisation Services : Activities that provide some combination of time, location, form an
  5. ations among others. His lucid writing style and easy explanation of complex topics make his books an ideal study material for thorough preparation
  6. utes, try to attempt all the sure-shot questions and go through all 100 questions once

Similarly, at this platform we share savindra singh book pdf Handwritten notes pdf in Hindi-English and geomorphology by savindra singh free pdf Free Pdf Study indian-economy-notes-vajiram-written-notes-upsc-ias 5/14 Downloaded fro Rau's IAS History Optional Printed Notes. Rated 3.83 out of 5 based on 6 customer ratings. ( 6 customer reviews) ₹ 899.00. Buy Rau's IAS History Optional Printed Notes, a complete set of 8 printed booklets for mains exam. Notes cover complete syllabus of Paper 1 and 2. Description UPSC (Civil Services Examination)- Prelims 2020: Answer Key, Explanation and Trend Analysis. Amid many ups and downs around COVID 19 Pandemic, finally UPSC is going to conduct its UPSC Prelims 2020 on October 4th 2020 (Sunday). As time gap between Mains and Prelims is very less, a fine idea about expected Marks in Prelims is going to be nucleus of preparation strategy

history grade 12 caps study guide p2 - PDF Free Download Grade 12 History Study Guide is one of the literary work in this world in suitable to be reading material. That's not only this book gives reference, but also it will show you the amazing benefits of reading a book Duration : 1 year. L1: 10 months | 1-2 Online live classes of 2 hours each conducted Monday to Friday. L2: 2-3 months' classes (Option to attend physical classes on-campus) L1: INR 140,000. L2: INR 15,000. (Inclusive of GST) HYBRID/ONLINE. WEEKEND BATCH. ENGLISH MEDIUM [Topper's Interview] Abhinav Agnihotri (Rank-302/CSE-2015) Sociology, 4th Attempt, Kurukshetra University, Haryana Candidate Profile Education Introductio

IAS, Vajiram and Ravi, Gs Score, Insight IAS, IAS Baba, Forum IAS, Shankar IAS and others which we share are purely for Education Mar 29, 2006 · Pythagoreanism can be defined in a number of ways. (1) Pythagoreanism is the philosophy of the ancient Greek philosopher Pythagoras (ca. 57 Any Book And Its Solution Manual Free From Internet in PDF Format ! Mains Solved Book ¦ (Vision IAS+ vajiram \u0026 ravi +insight ets) Ø=Ý─DISHA Vs Arihant Mains Solved Answers Review of 7 years UPSC GS Paper 1-4 Must need Book forUPSC CA EXAM: CA . 2020 *〉@M7> 9A 〉&M☀, 儿9> &G Vajiram & Ravi Prelims 2021 Test 6 With Solution Pdf. Hello every one. Every PDF and Material is provided for Free on groupstelugu.com and use them wisely. Don't make Materials and PDFs commercial. They should be used for Education purposes only. Advertisement. If you are fresh CIVILS aspirant know about Prelims, Mains and also Optional details

بازدید آمار این کانال Telegram ᴏᴠᴇʀɴᴍᴇɴᴛ Exam Mαтerιαlѕ - @Government_Exam_materials. مشترکین، افزایش، بازدید در روز، اعلامیه ها و دیگر تجزیه و تحلیل در وب سایت Analytics Telegram 2010-11 71670.53. 2011-12 83148.61 GNP at Factor Cost. 2012-13 54166.59. 2013-14 56738.57. Inference: We know that the GNP final goods and services at market price produced within the. domes c territory of the country in an accoun ng year including net factor income from. abroad minus net indirect taxes 7) Perumkulam is Kerala's first 'Book Village' •Perumkulam, in Kollam District, has been bestowed with the title Kerala's first 'Book Village'. This claim to fame results from years of concerted efforts aimed at encouraging the habit of reading. Perumkulam is a small village in Kulakkada near Kottarakkara in Kollam district

Say Hello to Deep Blue: 'The Biggest Shark Ever Filmed' | NBC Nightly News China: Power Book for Science and Technology - विज्ञान एवं Adoption in California: Issues and Evidence 8 items that sold on Amazon over $15 Review of Vajiram and Ravi Science and Technology yellow book vs Magbook Arihant(Page 5/13. Get. book along with the typeface employed was interesting to learn It is one of the most amazing book we have study I discovered this pdf from my i and dad recommended this book to learn (Mr Sterling Hane) HOLT Page 1 of 14 - eduplacecom Holt Science & Technology.

Vajiram & Ravi conducts an interview guidance lecture on How to prepare for the Vajiram and Ravi Latest Audio Recordings; Discuss the Nolan Committee's Muslim fruits suppliers in Noida speak Jul 26, 2021 the information arm of the Indian government, decried a viral audio clip claiming that vendors lick vegetables and fruits before selling them AP STATE KAPU WELFARE AND DEVELOPMENT CORPORATION LTD. (A Govt. of AP undertaking) VIDYONNATI SCHEME DETAILED NOTIFICATION Applications are invited from the eligible students from Kapu, Telaga, Balija an

Comprehensive history of modern india spectrum pdf free download Disclaimer:-freeupscmaterials.org does not own this Materials, Test Series or anything we share, neither created nor scanned. we just providing the links already available on Internet. and also we doesn't Own any trademarks or copyrights of any institute like Vision IAS, Vajiram and Ravi, Gs Score, Insight IAS, IA The UPSC is a Constitutional body, established by the Indian Constitution to conduct the recruitment of officers for the Government of India. The Civil Services Examination (CSE)is conducted annually by the UPSC. Number of Attempts 1. General Category and OBC Creamy Layer - 6 attempts and age limit is 2! to 32. 2 However, this haralambos and themes of sociology olborn and pdf perspective is very important for crack ssc cgl, chsl (10+2) and cpo sub inspector (si) exams. also this haralambos sociology blue book will be useful for ssc junior engineer (je,) stenographer and ssc jht. topic Sociology Lecture Notes Pdf Laws. Law Details: (PDF) LECTURE NOTES Introduction to Sociology bantu .Law Details: By learning the materials presented in this lecture notes, it is believed that students will be able to understand and appreciate the basic issues, principles and approaches of sociology.Students may also gain an indirect benefit of appreciating the social, cultural, and.

Vajiram and Ravi International Relations Yellow Book Pdf

If You want to share Your Study Material with Other send me exammaterials6@gmail.com Please share this post with the needy aspirants. Join our Telegram Channel for regular update Click here Like our Facebook Page for regular update Click here. If you are new to UPSC field, We recommend you to know about UPSC Prelims and UPSC Mains and UPSC Optionals and Test Series [Prelims/Mains] and also. Acces PDF Matric 2014geography Guideline Bookletcan download it instantly. Our book servers spans in multiple countries, allowing you to get the most less latency time to download any of our books like this one. Merely said, the matric 2014geography guideline booklet is universally compatible with any devices to read Page 3/3 Chakra handout pdf 100% Authentic and Trusted. We work directly with the top coaching Institutions and toppers from Delhi. With the trust of 25000+ students, Gurusnotes is the most authentic destination for all kind of notes in India Vajiram and Ravi Mains test series by Harsh Kumar Gupta 1 year ago 46 minutes 596 views Vajiram and Ravi , Mains , Test Series , There's plenty of water on this big blue planet, but large amounts aren't exactly safe to drink. Keep the LifeStraw with you, and you'll b

Final Key with Detailed Solutions UPSC Civil Services Preliminary Exam - 2020 (Paper - 1) UPSC Civil Services (Prelims) Examination - SET B - Answer Key Q1. With reference to the carbon nanotubes, consider the following statements: They can be used as carriers of drugs and antigens in the human body. They Continue reading Final Key with Detailed Solutions - UPSC Civil Services. GS Score Current Affairs of September 2020 3rd Week for UPSC Civil Services Examinations 2020. GS Score Current Affairs. GS Score Current Affairs September 2020 3rd Week: for UPSC Civil Services Prelims and Mains Examinations 2020.Candidates preparing for the examination can download the magazine pdf from the official website of GS Score or direct link provided in this article

vajiram and ravi handwritten notes pd

Results 1 - 16 of 1000+ Made Easy Hand Written Notes Mechanical Engineering For General Studies and Engineering Aptitude Pdf For IES By Made Easy Vol. made easy gate book pdf GS Made Easy Free PDF Handwritten Notes for IES/ ES 1 Author:- Allen. 2 Publisher: -Allen Career Institute. 3 Language:- English. 4 Year:- 2019-2020. 5 Exam:- IIT, JEE. 5.1 Type of E-Book:- Printed. 6 Must Check: Best Neet Coaching in Delhi. 7 ALLEN - Best Study Material for IIT JEE (Main+Advanced) some important content given below

Sociology Haralambos and Holborn PDF - Notes Clue

Hello to Deep Blue: 'The Biggest Shark Ever Filmed' ¦ NBC Nightly News China: Power and Prosperity -- Watch the full Ø=Ý─刀攀瘀椀攀w of Vajiram and Ravi Science and Technology yellow book vs Magbook Arihant( how to prepare )Holt amazing book we have study I discovered this pdf from my i and dad recommended this book to. CRACKIAS -CSAT Notes. Topicwise videos in a remarkably simple language along with shortcuts make a weak student in CSAT extremely comfortable with the subject. Notes cover every topic along with sufficient number of practice questions with explanations. There are total 5 Books for CSAT -. 4 Books cover complete syllabus of CSAT including Data. S&T includes basic science like Physical, Chemical, Biological, Bio-Chemistry and Technology. Very basic way to prepare this section is to get acquainted with current developments with respect to all the domains, part of S&T. Here we classify the domains and let you understand the very diversified and analytical nature of questions asked Vajiram_India_Yearbook_2019_Summary_Part_2.pdf - Free download as PDF File (.pdf), Text File (.txt) or read online for free. in Europe. New markets such as USA and Australia have recently opened up. Darjeeling Tea, Mahabaleshwar Strawberry, Blue Pottery of Jaipur,.

UPSC CSAT Notes PDF 2020 & 2021 From Vajiram And Ravi

Blue rice is the latest craze that is Insta worthy too! Health Benefits of Cornflakes for diabetes Bluetooth Speakers For Kids With Features That Are Ideal For Younger User Bookmark File PDF Mcgraw Hill Issues In Economics Sixth Edition Crash Course Economics #3 Book List for UPSC/IAS By Vajiram And Ravi! These book Must Read! #UPSC/IAS Jim Rohn on Reading with Book Suggestions Introduction to Social Problems and Issues Part 2 How to prepare Paper 2 in CAPF AC Exam by Prashant Jagtap CAP

Vajiram and Ravi Indian Polity Yellow Book Part 2 Pdf

Science & Technology is one of the subjects included in the civil services examination. Many questions circling around this subject have been asked both in UPSC Prelims and Mains.. To help aspirants prepare for IAS Exam, this article will provide them with the pdfs of UPSC notes on Science and Technology India is the 7th largest country in the world and ranks 2nd in population. It covers an area of 32,87,263 sq. km. Lying northern hemisphere, between latitudes 8°4' and 37°6' north, longitudes 68°7' and 97°25'. The total length of the coastline of the mainland, Lakshadweep Islands and Andaman and Nicobar Islands is 7,516.6 km Dec 3, 2014 - The body is temporary - soul is permanent. When the auto-complete results are available, use the up and down arrows to review and Enter to select Indian economy/ Economics is part of both UPSC Prelims Syllabus and the UPSC Mains Syllabus (GS III). Also, Economics is an optional subject choice in the IAS Mains exam. This highly relevant and scoring subject often poses a challenge to IAS aspirants, as students find it hard to make notes balancing both static and dynamic economic topics For learning partners Previous question Papers PDF caterpillar fungus ( Ophiocordyceps Sinensis ) is a parasite., IRS Officers till now through Vajiram 's guidance five short multiple-choice questions in the article ( with ). Or Call Us on- 9354229384, 9354252518, 9999830584. click here standard UPSC books known Kira..

Haralambos & Holborn Sociology - IAS Material

UPSC Main Study Material Free Pdf Notes Download. CONTACT INFORMATION:-1. Students also visit our homepage for best notes and books for UPSC RRB SSC IBPS PO SBI CLERK RRB CTET LAW and Civil services and all government competitive exams and any query you can call us at our customer support number 0120-416024 GEO L7 Indian Geography 0.1 - Free download as Powerpoint Presentation (.ppt / .pptx), PDF File (.pdf), Text File (.txt) or view presentation slides online. Mrunals lecture in geography for IAS at SPIP The UPSC CSE-GS Mains consists of nine papers, out of which two papers are only qualifying in nature. The marks obtained in seven papers and the interview together are considered for preparing the final merit list. Paper A. Compulsory Indian Language Paper with a total of 300 marks. It is a qualifying exam. Paper B Vision IAS Monthly Current Affairs - March 2021 - [PRINTED] ₹50.0 . Vision IAS Monthly Current Affairs pdf Download for UPSC Civil Services Examination 2021. We request you to respect our Hard Work. In the present scenario to secure a good rank in UPSC, one can't ignore the current affairs part of the examination The preliminary exam has been postponed to 4th October 2020 and the main examination will be held on 8th January 2021. So for the preliminary exam, you have approximately more than 2 months and for the mains exam, there are still 6 months left. Take a piece of paper and make your macro plan first

Correspondence - Vajiram & Ravi: Best IAS Coaching in Delh

I did not take any test series for Anthropology Sanjha Ranjan is on Facebook. Join Facebook to connect with Sanjha Ranjan and others you may know. Facebook gives people the power to share and makes the world more open and connected Energy Transition Index. Recently, the World Economic Forum (WEF) has released the annual rankings of the global Energy Transition Index. The index benchmarks 115 economies on the current performance of their energy systems acros

Vajiram and Ravi Recitals June 2021 Current Affairs PDF. Best day ever!. New Shepard, built by Bezos' company Blue Origin, is designed to serve the burgeoning market for space tourism. 6) China unveils 600 kph maglev train makes public debut Perumkulam is Kerala's first 'Book Village. Patients Turning Blue Means Their Lives Are At Risk: Dr Sumit Ray TOKYO (R) - Japan's government should think about compiling an extra budget worth around 30 trillion yen ($273.30 billion), ruling party heavyweight Toshihiro Nikai was quoted as saying by.