Bermuda cave diving

Bermuda caves are biodiversity hot spots for at least 25 critically endangered species, some of which are endemic to a single room in a single cave on the planet. As a result, only a few fortunate scientists and researchers are granted rare collecting and work permits allowing diving with the support of local guides He is coordinating logistics for the expedition in Bermuda with Triangle Diving's Captain Graham Maddocks. An active Cave diver, Gil is a founder of the Bermuda Cave and Karst Investigation, BeCKI, along with Dr. Wolfgang Sterrer, Dr. Iliffe and Bernie Szukalski of ESRI Green Bay Cave Bermuda. Green Bay Cave is completely submerged and is the longest underwater cave system in Bermuda. It has underwater passageways that extend to over 1.5 miles. There are excellent and massive formations of stalactites and stalagmites in the cave that are visible to the divers. These formations indicate that once it was a dry cave Cathedral features a great swim-through cave with thousands of glassy sweepers, while Hangover Hole has tunnels, arches and tons of animal life. Roughly on the same latitude as Savannah, Georgia, Bermuda's dive season parallels the U.S. East Coast's

Our Western most dive center is located on the beach of the luxurious Fairmont Southampton Resort on Bermuda's South shore. Explore the amazing wrecks and reefs of Bermuda's southern and western shores. enter site. Our Eastern most dive center is located by the sea at the scenic Grotto Bay Beach Resort in Bermuda's iconic Castle Harbour The Crystal & Fantasy Caves are Bermuda's top visitor attraction for some very spectacular reasons. Deep, clear underground pools of azure blue water. Incredible formations of every size and shape imaginable. Cave ceilings adorned with rare chandelier clusters and delicate crystallized soda straws. Each cave is uniquely beautiful and is a new. These are the best places for budget-friendly scuba & snorkeling in Bermuda: Sail Bermuda Private Charters. Rising Son Cruises. Restless Native Catamaran. Fantasea Diving & Water Sports. Hidden Gems of Bermuda Ltd. See more budget-friendly scuba & snorkeling in Bermuda on Tripadvisor This map was produced by the Bermuda Cave Diving Association in 1986, sponsored by the Bermuda Government. It shows the submerged passageways which connect the partially air-filled named collapse caves. Located at the northern and southern ends of the network, respectively are Wonderland Cave (re-named Fantasy Cave) and Vine Cave

Located on the property of the Grotto Bay Beach Resort. We run daily 2 tank wreck and reef dives, as well as a shallow reef dive for beginners. We offer all PADI courses from beginner all the way up to Instructor level. Dive Bermuda at Grotto Bay is the only dive shop that dives both Bermuda's southerly and northern wrecks and reefs Sail, snorkel, paddle board, dive ancient wrecks or explore the delicate coral reefs. Grab an early morning fishing charter, take a cruise on a sunny afternoon or a glorious sunset sail right from our dock. Play tennis night or day, work out in our ocean-front gym or get pampered in our 500,000-year-old cave spa The Bermuda Deep Project brings together some of the most experienced cave diving explorers on earth with an array of technology never before deployed to reveal caves previously hidden in the oceanic depths Bermuda's Caves Reimagined. May 19, 2021. Written by: Fae Sapsford. After breaking down the best Beaches, Forts, and Parks , we're exploring local cave habitats and giving the scoop on which is best and why. Accessibility - Crystal Caves. The most classic Bermuda cave, attracting visitors and locals alike

The Crystal Caves Of Bermuda Are Open! Please note that due to COVID restrictions the number of guests per tour are limited. Please book in advance by phone - 441 293 0640. The Fiddlestix Gift Shop is OPEN DAILY 9am to 5pm and Cafe Ole is open daily 9am to 430pm. Crystal & Fantasy Caves are Bermuda's top visitor attraction for some very. 8 Crystal Cave Road. Hamilton Parish. Telephone: 441-293-0640. Fax: 441-293-7334. Admission: Adults $22, children age 5-12 $10, children under 5 are free. Combination ticket to access both Crystal and Fantasy Caves is $30 for adults, $12 for children. Located in the eastern section of the island, between the City of Hamilton and St George's Bermuda has remained a magnet for scuba divers. Some of the dive shops here offer PADI 5-star facilities including dive instructions. Diving in Bermuda offers all the classic ingredients that you want for a special dive - the reefs, shipwrecks, underwater caves, a variety of colorful corals and marine life, and finally clear and warm water Diving in Bermuda is something people come from all over to try, but that doesn't mean there isn't a unique experience or two that remains a mystery. Even from those who have witnessed events that have a perfectly explainable scientific cause, it's still a mesmerizing and intriguing account of what this area of the world is capable of

The Bermuda Cave Dive Association does not have a Web site, but its president, Andrew Mello, can be reached by e-mail at sparky1@northrock.bm Many consider this volcanic island the shipwreck capital of the world. With an estimated 300 wrecks and extensive fringing reefs, Bermuda is a great dive destination with much to offer. One of the most stunning wrecks is the Mary Celestia, a Confederate Army ship that sunk during the Civil War. The ship has been a popular site as of late due to. At Dive Bermuda Grotto Bay it is our pleasure to offer you and your dive group, dive and stay room packages with the Grotto Bay Beach Resort. Our dive center is located directly on the ocean from the resort. Only a short walk away. Resort facilities include: Complete dining facilities (optional all-inclusive plans) Private beaches The official source for Bermuda travel planning. Explore island life out here and find beaches, attractions, events, restaurants, places to stay and more. see a jungle and tour caves. Bermuda was once known as the Isle of Devils. Dive In. Sometimes, you simply don't want to be found Explore beach retreats, historic hotels and more

Best Bermuda Scuba Diving - Book Scuba Diving in Bermud

Bermuda Cave Geology. Bermuda is a volcanic seamount located 1000 km off the east coast of the United States in that part of the Western Atlantic known as the Sargasso Sea. The island was created by a series of mid-ocean volcanic eruptions that began about 35 million years ago, at a time when the Atlantic Ocean was much [] Read More. Tweet Dive Bermuda Ltd. - Located at the Fairmont Southampton, Dive Bermuda Ltd. can guide you to all the best shipwrecks on Bermuda's south side. Fantasea Diving & Watersports - The historic Royal Naval Dockyard is the perfect launching point for diving and snorkelling trips in Bermuda. Tucker's Point Dive & Watersports Centre - Tailor your dream. Due to the difficulty of access as well as the inherent dangers of cave diving, arthropod diversity in Bermuda's caves has only been assessed infrequently, with studies especially carried out in the '80s and by Dr. Blanco-Bercial's team in 2016

Bermuda's beautiful but treacherous reefs have spelled doom for more than 300 wrecks, dating from the 1600s up to the late 1980s. But divers don't exist on wrecks alone; those same reefs offer nearly endless swim-throughs, caves and canyons. Here are our picks for the best diving in Bermuda. The L'Hermini Bermuda probably has more caves per square mile than anywhere else in the world. As we are between Ice Ages at this time, the sea level is high and many of Bermuda's caves have lakes in them, resulting in stalagmites, which originally grew on the cave floor, now being underwater

Advanced Cave Diving in the Bermuda Deep Scuba Divin

Cave diving is underwater diving in water-filled caves. It may be done as an extreme sport, a way of exploring flooded caves for scientific investigation, or for the search for and recovery of divers lost while diving for one of these reasons. Menorca) of Spain, the islands of the Bahamas, Bermuda, Cuba, and many more. [citation needed] The. Bermuda Cave Diving Association and began to systematically explore, map, and scientifically documentthe island'sanchialine caves. Bermuda is a volcanic seamount located 1000 km off the east coast of the United States in that part of the Western Atlantic known as the Sargasso Sea. The island was created by a series of mid-oceanvolcani Back to Bermuda, he became an active member of the Bermuda Cave Diving Association with whom he explored and mapped more than 20 cave system. In 1998 he moved to the Dominican Republic to pursue his passion of cave exploration and to start his own dive center Golden Arrow Technical Diving Center The island of Bermuda has a rich history of shipwrecks dating back centuries. But instead of diving underwater to explore the cultural treasure, there's a non-invasive yet still immersive solution.

Bermuda Deep Water Caves 2011: Dives of Discovery

Get Cave Dive With Fast And Free Shipping For Many Items On eBay. Looking For Great Deals On Cave Dive? From Everything To The Very Thing. All On eBay CaveAtlas.com combines real world field research, exploration and survey to offer you one of the most advanced and complete sources of information for cave exploration, cave diving and dry caving Abandoned in Bermuda, she was sold to the Bermuda Dive Association for $1. The Hermes sits upright in 70-75ft (21-23m) of water, her hatches were all removed before sinking to enable divers to safely penetrate. Very photogenic, it is possible to explore the forward cargo hold, crew compartments and engine room Check out some of the amazing dive sites that Bermuda has to offer in the following clip. The visibility is awesome even on what would be considered not the best days. Watch along as Holly & Mark dive with Blue water Divers as they explore new dive sites on the West of Bermuda One cave has been set aside as a unique spa experience that anyone can call ahead and book. Definitely a treat. The other cave is reserved for guests of the resort. There is a deep lake in both of the Grotto Bay caves, and as with most of the caves in Bermuda, something thrilling to do is have a swim in the clear but chilly water

Bermuda Underwater Cave

  1. Under water caves look exactly like above-water caves. The Bermuda Cave Diving Association has lines connecting them. Flatt's Inlet, from Flatt's Bridge. Photo by author Keith A. Forbes . Flatts Inlet, from the air. Four Photographs above and below by author Keith A. Forbes. Experienced cave divers, local or visiting, can find out more..
  2. g is in the grotto bay caves, while the header is a picture of the Crystal Cave, which is considered 'more visual'. Both are in Bermuda - I live there! Bermuda has many different cave structures all over the island (and if you're an avid diver, I believe we have some cave dive tours as well, though certain.
  3. All cave diving done under this study has met standards set by the Cave Diving Section of the U.S. National Speleological Society. ANCHIALINE CAVESAnchialine caves occur in both limestone and volcanic rocks. Extensive anchialine limestone caves found in Bermuda, the Bahamas, and other locations were probably formed during Pleistocene low sea.
  4. Bermuda cave expert Bruce Williams collects water samples from the floor of a cave in April. At BIOS, Williams provides technical support to visiting scientists and often lends his cave knowledge and diving skills to research efforts. Enlarged photos of copepods captured from other caves worldwide reveal extraordinary, otherworldly creatures.

Bermuda Scuba Divin

  1. g . The formation of Bermuda caves started about a million years ago. Members easily access some caves due to their openings on land, while others are beneath water caves accessible to only divers. Cave swim
  2. It is where the famous Helmet Diving in Bermuda started. Explore the island's history is the largest museum in Bermuda, the Bermuda Maritime Museum (BMM), view the manicured gardens of the Palm Grove Garden or nearby Flatts Inlet; the peaceful village is an excellent stop while touring the island. The glittering caves housing dramatic.
  3. Among the best is the Smith Moore, which rests in 70- to 105 feet of water and the Bermuda, popular with sport divers and snorkelers because the old wooden schooner that sank in 1870 is only 12 feet from the surface. Sea caves are another diving draw—caves formed by wave action that hollowed out sandstone cliffs under the water and at.
  4. Unless you're an expert scuba diver, your safest option is to join a dive operated by a PADI diving center like Fantasea Diving & Watersports, Blue Water Divers & Watersports or Dive Bermuda
  5. A satellite view, courtesy of Google Maps, of the unspoiled Walsingham Nature Preserve, Hamilton Parish, Bermuda. Beneath this tract is a network of mostly submerged limestone caves where Joey did some cave diving as a warmup for her trip to the Yucatan
  6. Cave diving is a very specialized form of scuba diving, requiring 100+ hours of training for certification. Cave diving is kinda like the 1% of scuba divers, and divers qualified to do Rescue/Recovery are like the 1% of that 1%.-- Cave diving requires extensive training because it is extremely dangerous, even for the heavily trained
Living in eternal night, sea creatures survive with senses

Tune in tonight as we dive to a deep water mystery wreck off Florida. I don't believe the program will go into too much detail on the identification, so I will share what information we discovered -- it's a story worth sharing. Also featured will be Bermuda wreck diving and some cave diving to a Bahamian Blue Hole Bermuda 2-Tank Certified Scuba Dive. star-4.5. 15. Discover the 'wreck capital of the Atlantic' on a 2-tank dive to Bermuda's legendary reefs, and discover a seafloor that strewn with ruined ships and brilliant coral formations. Slip into the water at two of the island's best dive sites, and watch for the barracuda, seahorses and tuna. Exploring a Bermuda cave, photo courtesy Jill Heinerth, IntoThePlanet.com: Recognizing a lifetime devoted to water advocacy, Jill was also awarded the Wyland Icon and Sea Hero of the Year awards He is also a member of La Fundación Espeleobuceo Hispanola, the Bermuda Cave Diving Association, lifetime member of both the National Association of Cave Diving and International Association of Nitrox and Technical Divers. Bobby is a founding member of the Dominican Republic Speleological Society. He has spent the past several years doing. The essential cave diving procedure is navigation using a guide line. This includes laying and marking line, following line and interpreting line markers, maintaining and repairing line, finding lost line, jumping gaps, and recovering line, any of which may need to be done in zero visibility, total darkness, tight confined spaces or a combination of these conditions

Come along with us as we travel across the island into Bermuda's one and only Jungle filled with cliff jumping, dry cave explorations and cave swimming adventures! Get ready to put your feet in the 'Bermudaful' pink sand as we travel to one of the island's premier beach locations for beach relaxation, swimming and snorkelling During the three week NOAA Ocean Exploration project, Bermuda Deep Water Caves 2011: Dives of Discovery, our four member deep team, aided by numerous assistants, conducted eight deep offshore dives to a maximum depth of 448 ft., in addition to eight photo, instrument deployment, and exploration dives in inland caves systems

Dive Bermuda at Grotto Bay Bermuda's Premier Dive Cente

Cave diving is an essential tool in our investigations since the caves I'm interested are filled with water: typically a layer of fresh or brackish water on the surface and then saltwater at. Bermuda National Gallery. Palm Grove Gardens. Albouy's Point Park. Barr's Park. Victoria Park. Par-la-Ville Park. Gibbs Hill Lighthouse. Forth St Catherine. Dockyard. Bermuda Aquarium and Zoo. Railway Trails. St Peters Church. Town of St Georges. Elbow Beach. Horseshoe Bay. Warwick Long Bay. Church Bay. Crystal Cave. Botanical Gardens. Fort. Originally from France, Denis got introduced to SCUBA diving in 1988 when he arrived in Bermuda. In 1994 he had the opportunity to go to Florida and take a cave diving class with his mentor Tom Mount. Back to Bermuda, he became an active member of the Bermuda Cave Diving Association He is also a member of La Fundación Espeleobuceo Hispanola, the Bermuda Cave Diving Association, lifetime member of both the National Association of Cave Diving and International Association of. Photos: Bermuda At Olympic Opening Ceremony. July 23, 2021. The opening ceremony of the Tokyo Olympic Games took place today [July 23], with first-time Olympian Dara Alizadeh carrying the Bermudian flag as the island was announced live to the world, with the island's team wearing our signature Bermuda shorts. Mr Alizadeh competes in Men's.

Crystal & Fantasy Cave

THE 10 BEST Bermuda Scuba & Snorkeling Activities (with

Connect with people who share your interest in Scuba Diving in Facebook groups Photo Gallery: Bermuda Wreck Diving. Bermuda's sterling dive reputation is founded on world-class wreck dives. There's no place on the planet that offers anything like this virtual time capsule in the Atlantic: Three hundred identified wreck dives lie within easy reach of this island territory, a mere two-hour flight from New York City Anytime between May and September is the best time to visit Bermuda, where you will be greeted with temperatures in the 70s and 80s Fahrenheit (20s Celsius) and warm waters perfect for swimming and snorkeling.Most of the tour operators start offering more boat tours and snorkeling and diving expeditions. During the peak season, the prices for hotels and tours are high and beaches are crowded. Shop high-quality unique Bermuda T-Shirts designed and sold by artists. Available in a range of colours and styles for men, women, and everyone

7. Caves - Bermuda Geolog

  1. Translation of Bermuda in French. Bermuda A two-stage stratified probability design was employed. Bermudes On a employé un échantillon probabiliste stratifié à deux degrés. The Canadian Institute of Chartered Accountants has members in Bermuda
  2. The highlight of Church Cave is its 1,500 square meter lake which is the largest underground lake in the island. The maximum depth of the lake is 22 meters. Bitumen Cave is located just north of Church Cave and is the deepest underwater cave in Bermuda (25.5 meter deep). It has an 8 meters wide pit that reaches into a lake
  3. Bermuda's a small island, and because of that, the caves are not very high above sea level, and you don't have to go very far into the interior before the caves reached sea level, [and there.
  4. Blue hole coral reef is one of the most pristine of all Bermuda's reef sites as well as a favorite of most divers. The Blue Hole coral reef is located at the end of Eastern Blue Cut, where the shallow waters meet the North Atlantic. This is a classic multi-level site, with a maximum depth of 55 feet. The top of the reef can be often seen above.

Dive Bermuda at Grotto Bay (Hamilton) - 2021 All You Need

Bermuda's offshore reef is one of the world's top diving destinations and nature asserts its power in the famous Fantasy and Crystal Caves. Back on dry land, strolls through the capital, Hamilton, and nearby St. George reveal picturesque streets steeped in history and lined with colonial architecture Welcome to Deep Dive, in which we test dive watches both new and vintage beneath the waves in some of the world's most beautiful locations.This time, we're in Bermuda with the classic Seiko SKX007. Though the Seiko SKX007 has received countless write-ups, I've yet to find much about actually SCUBA diving with it. And why bother? Hardly any divers these days wear mechanical watches. Bermuda's only five-star PADI diving outfit operates out of the Grotto Bay Beach Resort and the Fairmont Southampton Resort, catering to divers of all abilities and offering everything from discovery dives ($35), one-tank ($95) and two-tank dives ($180), and snorkeling trips ($45) to certified PADI courses Islands in Bermuda Beaches in Bermuda Caverns & Caves in Bermuda Forests in Bermuda Gardens in Bermuda Nature & Wildlife Areas in Bermuda Hiking Trails in Bermuda Bodies of Water in Bermuda Reefs in Bermuda. Hartley Helmet Diving in Bermuda. 260. from ₹ 9,239.33 per adult. 3-Hour Private Sailboat Charter up to 15 guests. 43

Bermuda Residents, 2-years-old and older must also apply for and complete a Bermuda COVID-19 Travel Authorisation 1 to 3 days prior to arriving in Bermuda. Failure to do so is an offence, and a Travel Authorisation completed on arrival will attract a fee of $1000. Failure to pay the fee is also an offence Diving explorations in the caves have revealed the existence of integrated networks of phreatic passages at depths averaging 16 to 18 m below present sea level (Iliffe, 1980). Most of Bermuda's caves are located around the perimeter of Harrington Sound, a 4.8 km2, almost totally enclosed inshore sea water body Crystal Cave, Bermuda: In 1907 when two 12-year old's went in search of their cricket ball, little did they know that they would stumble upon one of nature's spectacular creations. The Crystal Cave in Bermuda initially discovered by Carl Gibbons and Edgar Hollis was further explored by the Wilkinson family, owners of the property, after.

In the lush trails of Blue Hole Park, you'll find yourself surrounded by Bermuda's outstanding natural beauty, with secluded caves and idyllic grottoes nestled within the park. In this 12-acre park, you can go on beautiful walks, go cliff-diving and float about in turquoise swimming holes All cave diving was carried out using techniques and equipment approved by the Cave Diving Section of the US National Speleological Society. We also acknowledge the assistance of A. Knap, R. Smith, W. Sterrer, S. Jickells and D. Gibbons. This paper is Contribution No. 978 of the Bermuda Biological Station for Research Dec. 2014, National Geographic Channel, Drain the Bermuda Triangle, 60-minute documentary including my cave diving research in the Bahamas Apr. 2011, Smithsonian Institution and History Channel documentary on cave biology research to be on continuous display at the National Museum of Natural History's Ocean Hal The Ocean Discovery Centre at the Bermuda Underwater Exploration Institute, East Broadway, hopes to give visitors an underwater adventure. The highlight of a visit is a simulated dive 3,600m (12,000 ft.) to the bottom of the Atlantic. Author Peter Benchley's videotaped commentary adds to the fun of exploring Bermuda's reefs

Shipwreck Snorkel in Bermuda. star-4.5. 27. Snorkel around Bermuda's vibrant offshore reef, as well as the shipwrecks of the Constellation and the Montana, during this 3-hour boat outing. Cruise out to the reef and dive in, using the provided mask, fins, and snorkel Visit the Crystal and Fantasy Caves. the National Museum of Bermuda for an educational experience and learn about mankind's impact on the ecosystem of Bermuda. 11. Go Deep Water Diving Diving for over thirty five years. Full cave and trimix certified for well over twenty five. 1991 - part of the first (helium) mixed gas program offered by IANTD. Helped develop the standards and procedures in use today. Authored a chapter in IANTD's The Exploration and Mixed Gas Diving Encyclopedia An environmental assessment of Bermuda's caves. View/ Open. etd-tamu-2003C-WFSC-Gibbons-1.pdf (1.791Mb) Date 2005-02-17. Author. Gibbons, Darcy Ann. As far as tourist attractions go, Crystal and Fantasy Caves in Bermuda are at the top for good reason. Here, you can access the island's stunning caves, where you can walk on floating pontoons overlooking crystal-clear, azure waters of the subterranean pools, all lit up with a state-of-the art lighting system to bring out their natural beauty

Grotto Bay Beach Resort and Spa Bermud

  1. The Crystal Caves of Bermuda, an otherworldly network of caves and subterranean lakes, was first discovered in 1901 by two Bermudian boys who were trying to track down a lost cricket ball
  2. This is a typical itinerary for this product Pass By: Bermuda Underwater Exploration Institute This is a great way to learn about the unique diversity of Bermuda's Marine life and eco system, explore the amazing crystal caves while enjoying the beautiful wildlife found on the tranquil islands of Bermuda Stop At: Crystal & Fantasy Caves You will get to wander around these extraordinary crystal.
  3. past by visiting investigators at the Bermuda Biological Station, no speleologists are currently in residence. The major accomplishment to date is a faunal and floral survey of Bermuda's caves. The Bermuda Cave Diving Association was founded in 1980 to promote the scientific study and exploration of Bermuda's underwater caves. 64°45' c I T

Bermuda Scuba Diving Packages There are a number of hotels with dive centers on site offering scuba diving packages. Bermuda may only be 20.6 square miles on land but the vibrant coral reef that surrounds our island is scattered over roughly 100 square miles and we have some of the best shipwreck dive sites in the world Most of it slides silently through hidden caves and tunnels. There is a vast underground labyrinth of them stretching the length of the Parish and from coast to coast in the Parish. Most of the network is entirely under water. Under water caves look exactly like above-water caves. The Bermuda Cave Diving Association has lines connecting them Jill Heinerth (born 1965) is a Canadian cave diver, underwater explorer, writer, photographer and film-maker. She has made TV series for PBS, National Geographic Channel and the BBC, consulted on movies for directors including James Cameron, written several books and produced documentaries including We Are Water and Ben's Vortex, about the disappearance of Ben McDaniel

Five Amazing Underwater Caves and the Training You Need toCrystal Caves Bermuda | Crystal caves bermuda, Underground

Most travelers only use travel insurance to cover missed flights and lost baggage, so any standard policy will fit the bill. However, a scuba diver must go through a much more detailed process of. Originally from France, Denis got introduced to SCUBA diving in 1988 when he arrived in Bermuda. In 1994 he had the opportunity to go to Florida and take a cave diving class with his mentor Tom Mount. Back to Bermuda, he became an active member of the Bermuda Cave Diving Association

The Crystal and Fantasy Caves are 62 meters deep and are genuinely some of the must-visit places in Bermuda. Keep in mind that the only way to visit the inside of each of these caves is by guided tours, which can be booked ahead of time or once you get to Bermuda Scientific Diving at the California Academy of Sciences. May 9 ·. Diver propulsion vehicle (DPV) training last week at Point Lobos with Academy biologist Kylie Lev and dive officers Allison Shafer, Mark Lane, and Mauritius Valente Bell. 2727 Diving into underwater caves is research like none other. When I and my cave-diving partners go into a cave, we are often about to see things no other human has ever seen — or been The reef off the coast of Bermuda is one of the world's most significant diving destinations, and nature's impact may be seen in the Crystal Caves and Fantasy. Because of Bermuda's subtropical climate, the weather is generally nice all year, ensuring that time is seldom wasted

Cliff diving into beautiful clear water - Picture ofCozumel Barrier Reef Certified Diving Day Excursion

Video: Bermuda's Caves Reimagined - The Bermudian Magazin

Amazing Underwater Caves Where You Can Swim and Scuba Dive#1 Caribbean Scuba Diving Website [5 star rated]